Haryana


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Haryana is a landlocked state in northern India. The state came into existence in 1966 on 1st of November when it was separated from the state of Punjab on the grounds of different language. It consisted of the Hindi-speaking areas of Punjab. The capital of Haryana is Chandigarh which is the capital of Punjab also. The epic war of Mahabharata was fought on the field of Kurukshetra which is an important part of present day Haryana. The state lies near the northern end of the Aravalli hills, the oldest fold mountains in India. Haryana is one of the wealthiest states of India and has the third highest per capita income in the country at ₹119,158 (US$1,900) in the year 2012–13 and ₹132,089 (US$2,100) in the year 2013–14. Haryana has the lowest sex ration n the whole country at 877 women/ 1000 males. Faridabad is its largest city.

Haryana State Basic Information

Capital Chandigarh
Area 44,212 sq. km
Population 25,351,462
No. of District 22
Literacy Rate 83.78%
Chief Minister Manohar Lal Khattar
Governer Kaptan Singh Solanki
Sex Ratio 877
Language Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu, Haryanvi
Date of Formation 1 November 1966
State Animal Black buck
State Bird Black francolin
State Flower Lotus
State Tree Sacred fig
Official Website www.haryana.gov.in

History

On 1 Nov, 1966 Haryana was carved out from the state Punjab and became a state of India. The present day Haryana is the region where, along the banks of the River Saraswati, the Vedic Civilization began and matured. This State is known for being the territory over which some of the decisive and famous battles were fought that changed much of the history of India. Chief among them are the battle of Mahabharata and the three battles of Panipat.

Many settlements dating back to the Indus Valley Civilization have been found along river Saraswati bed, at Naurangabad and Mittathal in Bhiwani District, Kunal, in Fatehabad District, Agroha and Rakhigarhi in Hisar District, Rukhi in Rohtak District and Banawali in Sirsa District. Haryana was an important centre of Vedic civilization. King Harshavardhana, one of the greatest kings of ancient India made Thanesar near Kurukshetra in the state of Haryana his capital in the 7th century AD. Prithviraj Chauhan, the last Hindu king in Delhi, founded forts at Tarori and Hansi in the 12th century.

Later the Mughal, Babur, defeated the Lodhis in the first battle of Panipat in the year 1526. Another decisive battle was fought in Panipat in 1556, establishing the reign of the Mughals for centuries to come.

Geography

Haryana is a state which is completely landlocked bordered by Himachal Pradesh and Punjab in the north, Rajasthan in the west and the south and Uttarakhand in the south.Haryana is situated in the north between 27°37' to 30°35' Latitude and between 74°28' to 77°36' Longitude at an height of 250 to 300 meters above the sea level. The total area of the State of Haryana is 44,212 square kilometres. Most of Haryana is in the plains with the Aravali mountain range starting its westward journey from here.Since Haryana is situated in the foothills of himlayas so the climate in winters is extremely cold and even touches 0 degrees but the summers here are extremely hot and the temperature goes above 40 degrees sometimes touching even 47 degrees. The Yamuna is the only major river that passes through this small state, which is one of the greenest in the country.

Culture

Incredible Haryana, also known as the “The Home of Gods” is proud of a rich cultural heritage which dates back to Vedic times and the Indus Valley Civilisation. The state is a visitor’s delight because of its friendly people, pleasant climate, lush forests, beautiful fairs, translucent lakes, ancient monuments, serene landscapes, lip-smacking food and more. The state has its own rich customs and traditions, as well as folklores to up-lift its great cultural heritage not just in India but in the whole world. The people of Haryana have their own traditions. The age old customs of meditation, Yoga and chanting of Vedic Mantras, are still observed by the masses. The seasonal and religious festivals glorify the culture of this region. Haryana state has different types of invaders, faiths, tribes, races and cultures from around the 2500 BC and this period is witness of the blending of various painting styles. All the current painting's reference is found in the period of Aryan. With Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu and English forming the main languages, there are numerous dialects which are spoken in Haryana. However, almost all of them have their base in Hindi. Sanskrit is also taught in most of the schools in Haryana.

Education

Haryana has seen a tremendous change in last few decades. Government has done a lot so that more and more children can have access to the education.Rate of literacy in Haryana, as per the census of 2011, is 76.64%, which is higher than the national average of 74.04%. the majority of Haryana still lives in villages and so the focus of rural education in Haryana is of utmost importance. According to Census of India shows that the highest 48.01 percent persons are illiterate in Mewat district followed by Sirsa (34.59 percent) and Fatehabad (34.48 percent)whereas the lowest 19.92 percent persons in Gurgaon.

The school education system in Haryana is not lagging behind the other Indian states. There are pre-primary, primary, secondary, higher-secondary and degree education available in this state. There are around 10399 primary and 3838 middle schools in Haryana. Haryana is having the highest teacher training colleges, i.e. 447 Colleges. But this figure doesn’t signify that education is being provided at a good scale in the state as there is very less scope of B.Ed. as compared to other courses. Medical colleges are also much enough which shows that the students are more keen to enter into this field.

Economy

Haryana is among the northern most states in India that surrounds the national capital city, New Delhi, from three sides. Historically an agrarian state, Haryana today is a well-developed industrial state. When it comes to financial health Haryana one among the three best performing states in the country. The state is one of India's largest automobile hubs and accounts for two thirds of passenger cars, 50 per cent of tractors and 60 per cent of motorcycles manufactured in the country. The state has also emerged as a base for the knowledge industry, including IT and biotechnology. The main industrial hubs of Hrayana are Panipat, Faridabad, and Panchkula. The Panipat Refinary ( IOCL ) situated at panipat is the second largest refinary in south Asia. The principle minerals produced in the state are kaolin, limestone, lime kankar, saltpetre, tin and tungsten. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people of the state. Rice, wheat, jowar, bajra, maize, barley, pulses, sugarcane, cotton, oil seeds and potato are the major crops of the state.

Governance

Haryana comprises of 13 administrative districts, which are further divided into sub-divisions. The government and administration in Haryana is controlled on the same paths as in other states of the country. The Haryana Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha). The Vidhan Sabha consists of 90 members. Haryana has 10 seats in the Lok Sabha - the lower house of Parliament and 5 seats in Rajya Sabha - the upper house of Parliament. The Haryana Assembly is elected by universal adult suffrage for a period of five years. The Chief Minister is the head of government and is vested with most of the executive powers. The Chief Minister is assisted by a Council of Ministers that he nominates, the size of which is restricted.

Judiciary in Haryana is headed by Chief Justice as in other states of the country and Punjab Haryana High Court is the head of the judiciary system in Haryana. Punjab Haryana High Court was established at Chandigarh on 15th August 1947.

Tourism

Whether you are a believer in God or non-believer, ‘The Abode of God’, as Haryana is famously referred to, might make you think if there is a god, he might probably be here. Haryana has several places of tourism importance. Just around the corner from south Delhi, a mere eight-kilometre drive away lies Surajkund with its large sun pool and amphitheatre. One of the major attractions of the state is the Shitala Mata Mandir considered to be the goddess of small-pox located in the city of Gugaon. The temple is flocked by several tourists all around the year to get rid from the small pox disease and to seek the blessings of the Goddess. Located around 48 km from Delhi, Sultanpur National Park in Gurgaon is an empyrean for birdwatchers and photographers. The park is nestled in an area of about 1.43 sq km where the tourists can get a wonderful chance to see various species of both the resident and migratory birds. Also known as the Green Land of India, Haryana not only has a rich past but a great present and a promising future too.

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