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India has since ancient times been the land of several religions. Ancient India winessed the birth of Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism, but all these cultures and religions interminated and acted and reacted upon one another in such a manner that though people speak languages, practice different religic obeserve different social customs, the certain common styles of life through country. Our country shows a deep unty in-spite of great diversity.
The history of human settlements in India goes back to prehistoric times and no written records are available for the prehistoric India. However, plenty of archaeological remains are found in different parts of India to reconstruct the history of this period.. Generally prehistory of India can be devided into two category :
Stone Age in India began with Early Stone Age (called Paleolithic) and ended up with the Middle Stone Age (called Mesolithic). Remains of the Homo erectus in the Narmada Valley in Central India show the presence of human life in India since middle Pleistocene, which is around 200,000 to 500,000 years ago.
The Mesolithic period in Indian subcontinent started around 30,000 years ago, covering a time span of 25,000 years. Bhimbetka Petroglyphs (10 cupules and a single groove) is the oldest (29,000 BCE) known Stone Age art that belongs to first permanent settlement of human being. It is found in Madhya Pradesh, Central India (quartzite Auditorium rock shelter at Bhimbetka). Traces of Neolithic period have been found in Gulf of Khambat in India. Late Neolithic culture was flourished in Indus Valley region from 6000 to 2000 BCE and in southern India from 2800 to 1200 BCE.
The Neolithic period is followed by Chalcolithic (copper-stone) period when copper and bronze came to be used. The Bronze Age in India begins around 3000 BCE, and in the end gives rise to the Indus Valley Civilization, which had its (mature) period between 2600 BCE and 1900 BCE followed by the Iron Age, which has its period between 1800 BCE to 1000 BCE. The new technology of smelting metal ore and crafting metal artifacts is an important development in human civilization. But the use of stone tools was not given up. Some of the micro-lithic tools continued to be essential items. People began to travel for a long distance to obtain metal ores. This led to a network of Chalcolithic cultures and the Chalcolithic cultures were found in many parts of India.
➤ The Indus valley civilization developed about 3000BCE and flourished for about 1500 years before mysteriously going into a period of decline. The Indus Valley Civilization, as it is called, covered an area the size of Western Europe. It was the largest of the four ancient civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and China. The ancient people of the Indus River Valley had a highly advanced knowledge of mathematics and a sophisticated system of weights and measures. During this time a great increase in craft technology, trade, and urban expansion was experienced. For the first time in the history of the region, there was evidence for many people of different classes and occupations living together. Between 2800-2600 B.C. called the Kot Diji period, Harappa grew into a thriving economic center. It expanded into a substantial sized town, covering the area of several large shopping malls. Harappa, along with the other Indus Valley cities, had a level of architectural planning that was unparralled in the ancient world.
➤ The Indus Valley Civilisation (2,600-1,900 BCE) may have been the first manifestation of the Dravidian peoples and languages in south Asia. From there they spread to south India. So at this period where Indus Valley Civilization is established in the northern India, the Dravidian Civilization was established in South India. The Dravidian languages with the most speakers are Telugu, Tamil, Kannada and Malayalam.Dravidians were the descendants of primitive inhabitants of India.
➤ The Vedic Period or the Vedic Age refers to that time period when the Vedic Sanskrit texts were composed in India. The society that emerged during that time is known as the Vedic Period, or the Vedic Age Civilization. The Vedic age began in India in about 1500 BC and extend up to 600 BCE with the coming of the Aryans, who scattered on the plains of northern India. This civilization laid down the foundation of Hinduism as well as the associated Indian culture. The Vedic Age was followed by the golden age of Hinduism and classical Sanskrit literature, the Maurya Empire and the Middle Kingdoms of India. Aryans developed Vedic culture based on Vedas. The meaning of the word Veda is "knowledge", the best of all knowledge in the eyes of Hindus. It is a collection of hymns, prayers, charms, litanies and sacrificial formulae. There are four Vedas, namely, Rig Veda, Sam Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda.During the early part of the Vedic period, the Indo-Aryans settled into northern India, bringing with them their specific religious traditions.
➤ India lies to the south central part of Asia at the head of Indian Ocean. It lies on the Indian Plate, the northern portion of the Indo-Australian Plate, whose continental crust forms the Indian subcontinent. Being located in the northern hemisphere, India stretches from 8o 4' north latitude in the south to 37o 6' north latitude in the north, i.e. the mainland of India extends from Kanyakumari in the south to Kashmir in the north. Its westernmost point (in Gujarat) lies at 68o 7' east, and the easternmost point (Kibithu in Arunachal Pradesh) lies at 97o 25' east, covering a distance of nearly 3200 km about 30 degrees a part. India is the seventh largest country of the world. It's area is about 32,87,263 sq. km.
India is endowed with almost all the important topographical features, such as high mountains, extensive plateaus, and wide plains traversed by mighty rivers. The country is bounded by Himalayas in the North and has a large peninsular region tapering towards the Indian Ocean. The Himalayas in the north are the major mountain ranges of the world. The other prominent mountains of India include the Aravallis, the Vindhyachals, the Satpuras, the Eastern Ghats, and the Western Ghats. The mountains are the primary source of rivers which derive their flow from rainfall and snow and glacier melt. The plateaus are another striking feature of topography in India and they range in elevation from 300 to 900 m.
The major physiographic divisions of India are :
The Himalaya, Karakoram and Hindu-Kush range of mountains extend from Namcha Barwa in the east to the borders of Afghanistan in the west. The pressure of the impinging plates could only be relieved by thrusting skyward, contorting the collision zone, and forming the jagged Himalayan peaks. More than 30 peaks of the Himalayas rise to heights of 7620 m (25,000 ft) or more, and one of these, Mount Everest (8848 m), is the world's highest mountain. Mountainous area in India occupies 96.06 M-ha divided into: Himalayas 51.43 M-ha, Vindhya region 9.27 M-ha, Eastern Ghats 18.02 M-ha, Western Ghats 7.74 M-ha, and Satpura Ranges 6.60 M-ha.
The Great plain of Northern India lies on the south of the Himalayas. It is, in fact, bounded by the Himalayas on the north and the Deccan plateau on the south.The northern plains extend from the mouths of the Indus in the west to the mouths of the Ganga-Brahmaputra in the east, a distance of about 3,200 km. The western part of these plains has five rivers - the Indus and its tributaries, the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas and the Satluj. . As these rivers enter plains, their velocity and hence the sediment carrying capacity reduces which forces them to dump the sediment. The north Indian plains of Indus and Ganga were formed by the alluvium that was carried by the rivers originating from Himalayas. This has led to the formation of vast northern plains of thick and fertile alluvium in north India
Peninsular Plateau of India is a triangular shaped region whose vertex is near Kanyakumari at the southern tip and base is near the line joining Calcutta to Saurashtra in Gujarat. This plateau is one of the oldest surfaces of the Earth and represents a segregated part of the old Gondwanaland. The peninsular region may be further subdivided into two parts: the central highlands and the Deccan Plateau. The northern part of the peninsular region which consists of low mountain ranges and igneous rocks forms the central islands. The north-western part of this area is dotted with very old mountains, known as the Aravallis. The southern boundary of this highland is formed by Vindhyachal mountain range. The southern part of the peninsular region is known as the Deccan plateau which extends southward from the Satpura range.
The coastal plains lie between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea on the west coast and the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal on the east coast. These are narrow strips of land which are desiccated by a number of rivers. According to their location to the east or west of the peninsular, they are called:
1. East coastal plain, and,
2. West coastal plain
The east coastal plain begins from the north with the plains formed by the Subarnarekha River to extend to the south till Kanyakumari. It thus stretches for nearly 1500 km, with nearly a width of 100 km. to the east of this plain lies the extensive blue waters of the Bay of Bengal and to the west of the plain lies the remnants of Eastern Ghat hills.
The West coastal plains stretches from the Rann of Kachchh in the north to Kanyakumari in the South. To the East it is bounded by the steep slopes of the Western Ghat and to the west lays the Arabian Sea. Compared to the East Coastal Plain, this West coastal plain is narrower.
The Andaman & Nicobar Islands is a group comprising two hundred and four islands, considered to be extensions of the mountain system in the northeast of India. They lie along an arc in long and narrow broken chain, approximately North-South over a distance of nearly 800 km. Some of the islands are also volcanic in origin.
The second group of islands is the Lakshadweep and Minicoy Islands which are situated in the Arabian Sea, consists of forty three islands, encircled by beautiful coral reefs. This tiniest Union Territory of India with an area of 32 sq. km is an archipelago mainly consisting of ten inhabited islands and 17 uninhabited islands.
India's culture is among the world's oldest civilization in India began about 4,500 years ago. The Indian culture, often labeled as an amalgamation of several various cultures, spans across the Indian subcontinent and has been influenced and shaped by a history that is several thousand years old It is known as the land of spirituality and philosophy, is the birthplace of some religions, which even exist today in the world. Indian Culture is full of several unique customs and traditions, which outsiders might find really intriguing.
The composite nature of our culture is reflected in our music, dance forms, drama and art forms like paintings, sculpture and architecture as well. Our literature in different languages also reflects this composite nature.
India is one of the most religiously diverse nations in the world, with some of the most deeply religious societies and cultures. Religion plays a central and definitive role in the life of many of its people. The most dominant religion in India today is Hinduism. About 80% of Indians are Hindus. Along with the religions that developed in India, there are followers of non- Indian religions. The largest non-Indian religion is Islam. They are about 12% of India's population. Christians are more then 2% of India's population. There are also Zoroastrians who even though make less then 0.01% of India's population, are known around India. There are also a few thousand Jews in India. Judaism and Christianity might have arrived in India before they arrived in Europe.
Diwali is the biggest festival in India, a celebration of the triumph of light over dark, good over evil. Diwali celebrations may last for up to five days. It's known as the "Festival of Lights" for all the fireworks, small clay lamps, and candles that are lit during the celebrations. Many people decorate their home and workplaces with tiny electric lights or small clay oil lamps. They may also wash themselves with water and fragrant oils, wear new clothes and give gifts of sweets to family members, close friends and business associates.
For Diwali houses are brightly lit, with the doors and windows kept open as Lakshmi is supposed to visit every home, and you can't afford to leave it dark and abandoned. Fireworks are set off in the evening in some areas. Melas (fairs) are held in many towns and villages.
Ganesh Chaturthi or "Vinayak Chaturthi" is one of the major traditional festivals celebrated by the Hindu community. It is observed in the Hindu calendar month of Bhadrapada, starting on the shukla chaturthi (fourth day of the waxing moon period). The festival lasts for 10 days, ending on Ananta Chaturdashi, and is traditionally celebrated as the birthday of Lord Ganesha.
Ganesh Chaturthi is celebrated with great devotion all over India. People bring home murtis (Idols) of Lord Ganesha and celebrate the festival by worshiping the Lord in a special way for a day and a half, 3 days, 5 days, 7 days or 11 days depending on the family tradition and commitment of each individual. On the last day of worship the idol is taken out in a colourful and musical procession to be immersed traditionally at a beach.
Durga Puja is truly one of the great festivals of India. The festival honours the goddess Durga, who represents the divine feminine energy, or Shakti. The first nine days of this festival are known as Navaratri, and are filled with dance in honor of the Mother Goddess. The tenth day, called Dussehra, is devoted to celebrating the defeat of the demon king Ravana by Lord Rama. It also coincides with the victory of the revered warrior Goddess Durga over the evil buffalo demon Mahishasura.
The worship of goddess Durga for the six days of celebration takes place on a magnificent scale among the people belonging to the state of West Bengal or other eastern part of the country. The huge and artistic pandals, magnificient idols of goddess Durga, people dancing on the beats of Dhaki (drum) and evenings surrounded with the divine tunes of Goddess Durga aarti are the unforgettable features of every Durga Puja celebration.
India has one of the world’s largest collections of songs, music, dance, theatre, folk traditions, performing arts, rites and rituals, paintings and writings that are known, as the ‘Intangible Cultural Heritage’ (ICH) of humanity. The art work of this country, be it paintings or sculptures or even traditional arts like Rangoli, has always gathered appreciation from people residing in almost all the parts of the world.
Since the beginning of our civilization, music, dance and drama have been an integral aspect of our culture. Initially, these art forms were used as medium of propagation for religion and social reforms in which music and dance were incorporated to gain popularity. From the Vedic era to the medieval period, the performing arts remained an important source of educating the masses. The Vedas laid down precise rules for the chanting of Vedic hymns. Even the pitch and the accent of singing different hymns have been prescribed. There was more of exemplary presentation through them than education or social reforms. Presently, these art forms have become means of entertainment for people all over the world.
India is a vast country, with lot of cultural and geographical diversities. This has resulted in a number of different languages spoken across the country. Hindi has become the national language of India. Hindi is spoken in north and central India. However, there are many dialects in India and Hindi is more like a rubric for different dialects. All these languages originated from the great languages of the past, with most of them belonging to several major linguistic families, like Indo-Aryan, Dravidian languages, Austro-Asiatic languages and Tibeto-Burman linguistic languages. English language is the commonly used official language of India. It enjoys a special status and remains the additional official language of India. It is also the authoritative legislative and judicial language.
Apart from the more widely spoken English and Hindi, there are the various regional languages as well. In fact, each state of India has its own official language, apart from the numerous dialects. However, the 8th schedule of the Constitution of India lists 22 such regional languages only, giving them official status.In the south of India there is a greater diversity of languages and you will have difficulties getting along with Hindi. Languages differ even between the important industrial centers Bangalore, Madras and Hyderabad.
Since independence in 1947, there have been larger investments in higher education in India, with the concomitant increase in the number of students who opt for higher education. The transformation of Indian
education system from the ancient gurukula system to today’s virtual learning system is a reflection of the changing social context. The new social realities, particularly the interplay between democratization of education, emergence of knowledge society and globalization, greatly influence the educational processes in all societies. Although the increase in the number of higher education institutions and student enrolment seems to be impressive, it is no different from the experience of other nations. Unlike in other countries, however in India, its 3 impact is nullified due to the growing population. Quantitative expansion resulted in the increase in expenditure on higher education.
Indian education system can be devided in four levels:
1. Primary Education
2. Secondary Education
3. Vocational Education
4. Tertiary Education or Higher Educations
The education systems in the States and Union Territories of India generally follow the 8+2+2+3 pattern, which provides for eight years of elementary education, two years each of secondary and senior secondary schooling, and three years of university education. Within this structure, each state independently determines the number of grades constituting elementary and secondary education. 18 of the 28 states offer five years of primary education, three years of upper primary education (also known as middle school), two years of lower secondary education, and two years of senior secondary education (5+3+2+2). Nine states provide four years of primary, three years of upper primary, three years of secondary and two secondary (4+3+3+2). One state has a (6+4+2) structure. This diversity in terms of when students begin secondary education poses a challenge for development of coherent curriculum across educational levels and states.
Senior secondary education is mainly for university preparation, and separates students into separate streams for arts, sciences and (often) commerce. Within these two main streams, there may be sub-groups, for example, a physical science stream along with mathematics and computer science.
Parallel to general education is a vocational stream. Indian policy has been to track 25 percent of the students in senior secondary education into the vocational stream, but vocational education has in fact been under-subscribed and constitutes less than five percent of total enrollment. Students who continue in Grades 11 and 12 usually aspire to tertiary education; those who attend vocational schools typically do so only because their academic results are not strong enough to enter the general academic track.
As a large emerging economy with a growing middle class, India has captured the attention of developed economies eager to tap into a new market with hundreds of millions of potential consumers. Within Asia, policymakers and private companies alike look to India as a regional market for exports and large-scale projects. India has also increasingly emphasized strategic economic relations in the region, most notably with Afghanistan, Pakistan, China, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
The excitement India's economy has generated lately is due in large part to changing internal and external dynamics. By some estimates, India's economy will grow from its current $1.8 trillion GDP to be the world's third largest in 2030, with a GDP of close to $30 trillion. Correspondingly, North America and Western Europe's share of global GDP is expected to shrink from 41 percent to 18 percent, while "developing Asia" will grow from 27 percent to 49 percent. India's exports of goods and services have risen from 8 percent of GDP to 25 percent in the last two decades alone. In addition, its exports are more diversified both geographically and in terms of the products it sells than its neighbors and competitors.
Many believe India could be the rising economic powerhouse that China is seen as today. There is broad agreement that the global center of economic activity and growth is moving to Asia, and investors are increasingly looking to India for economic and trade opportunities.
According to United Nations World Economic Situation and prospects 2016 report, India will be the world's fastest growing large economy at 7.3 per cent in 2016, improving further to 7.5 per cent in the following year. India's economy, which ccounts for over 70 per cent of South Asia's GDP, has been projected to grow by 7.3 per cent in 2016 and 7.5 per cent in 2017, slightly up from an estimated 7.2 per cent in 2015. The report is produced annually by the UN Departmentof Economic and Social Affairs (UN/DESA), the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), the five UN regional commissions and the World Tourism Organisation
Infrastructure Development is accorded high priority by th Government of India. The Government has taken a number of initiatives for the development of efficient infrastructure and towards creating an enabling environment for private participation and enhancing competition in the infrastructure sector.
Coal, electricity and petroleum are important source of energy.
The power sector is a major consumer of coal, using about 80 per cent of the country's coal prouction. Coal-fired thermal units account for around 67% of total power generation in the country. Coal continues to be the main stay for the power sector. Coal is the main source of energy in the country. More than 92% of the coal production in India is of non-coking coal. During 2014-15, 630.25 million tonnes of coal was produced while in 2013-14 this level was 565.8 million tonnes.
Electricity generation by power utilities during 2014-15 was 1048.67 billion kWh, out of which hydro, thermal and nuclear power were 129.24, 878.32 and 36.10 billion KW respectively. Installed capacity as on March 31, 2016 was 298060 MW, comprising 210675 MW from Thermal Power, 42783 MW from Hydro Power and 5780 MW from Nucler Power and 38822 MW from Renewable Energy Sources. Out of this 4177 MW from Small Hydro Power, 25088 MW from Wind Power, 4550 MW from Biomass, 127 MW from Waste and 4879 from Solar Power.
During the financial year (2014-15), production of crude oil is estimated at 37.5 million metric tonnes (MMT) during 2013-14. The production of natural gas, including coal Bed Methane (CBM) for 2013-14 was about 35.4 BCM as aginst 40.7 BCMfor 2012-13, showing a decline of about 13 per cent.
During 2011-12, 223.5 million tonnes cement was produced in the country, registering about 6.7 per cent increase over the level of 2010-11. Estimated production for 2013-14 is 303.00 million tonnes. During 2013-14 a growth rate of 3.3% was registered in cement production. During 2014-15, the estimated production of cement is 267.5 million tonnes.
The running track network of Indian Railways was spread over 66030km, comprising broad gauge (58825 route km), meter gauge(4908 route km) and narrow gauge (2,297 route km), About 33.66% (22224 km) of route-kilometre and 41% of running track km and 43% of total track km is electrified.
In recent years, the government has annonced various measures to promote private sectors paricipation in road development. India has 52.32 lakh km of road network , making it one of the lagest in the world. Tne road network cmprises 100475 km of National Highways, 148256 km of State Highways, 4983579 km other roads. Indian roads carry 87.4% of passenger and 65% offrieght traffic of this country. The highways eventhoughthey make up only 2% of the road netwrok by length carry 40% of this traffic.
The total number of telephone subscribers (basic and mobile) rose from78.5 million in 2004 to 1051.88 million at the end of Decmeber 2015. Teledensity in the country rose 7.02 per cent in March 2004 to 82.8% at the end of February 2016.
India is one of the top-ranking countries in the field of basic research. The rapid economic growth of the last fifteen years makes it feasible for the country to invest a great deal more in science than it could earlier. Indian Science has come to be regarded as one of the most powerful instruments of growth and development, especially in the emerging scenario and competitive economy. Contribution to Research & Development from private sources is on the increase even though it still remains relatively small. In the wake of the recent developments and the new demands that are being placed on the S&T system, it is necessary for us to embark on some major science projects which have relevance to national needs and which will also be relevant for tomorrow's technology. The Department of Science & Technology plays a pivotal role in promotion of science & technology in the country. The department has wide ranging activities ranging from promoting high end basic research and development of cutting edge technologies on one hand to service the technological requirements of the common man through development of appropriate skills and technologies on the other.
In 1962 when Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) was set up by the Indian Government India decided to go to space. In Thiruvananthapuram the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) was set up by Dr Vikram Sarabhai at its helm, INCOSPAR for upper atmospheric research.
Indian Space Research Organisation, formed in 1969, superseded the erstwhile INCOSPAR. ISRO then embarked on its mission to provide the Nation space based services and to develop the technologies to achieve the same independently
The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), also called Mangalyaan is a space probe orbiting Mars since 24 September 2014. India’s first inter planetary mission, the Mars Orbiter Spacecraft was successfully launched on November 5, 2013 onboard PSLV-C25. With this mission ISRO has become the fourth space agency to reach Mars, after the Soviet space program, NASA, and the European Space Agency.
"Chandrayaan-1", India's first mission to the Moon, was launched successfully on October 22, 2008 from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota. 'Chandrayaan-1' was the moon exploration mission for mapping the lunar surface with high resolution remote sensing and study the chemical and mineralogical composition. This mission has enabled to detect the presence of Hydroxyl (OH), a molecule consisting of oxygen and hydrogen atoms and water molecules on the lunar surface, which has set new directions of lunar explorations in the global community.
"Chandrayaan-2", India's second mission to the Moon, is an advanced version of the previous Chandrayaan-1 mission. Developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), the mission is planned to be launched to the Moon by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mk III (GSLV III). It consists of an lunar orbiter, lander and rover. All these are developed by India. India is planning to launch Chandrayaan-2 by 2018
Today where Information Technology has become the base of development, it has changed the image of India in the global arena. Even if the results of development of IT in India are more visible after globalization, its development got rooted almost before 50 years. The computers and IT materials which were basically invented and designed to solve numerical problems as explained by Majumdar (2007) are facilitating the transition to a global society by encompassing all walks of our life.
The industry was started during early 70"s by Bombay-based conglomerates which entered the business by supplying programmers to global IT firms located overseas. During that time Indian economy was state-controlled and the state remained hostile to the software industry throughout the 1970s.
India has embarked upon a very ambitious program in biotechnology with a view to harnessing its available human and unlimited biodiversity resources. It has mainly been a government sponsored effort with very little private industry participation in investment. The Department of Biotechnology (DBT) established under the Ministry of Science and Technology in 1986 was the major instrument of action to bring together most talents, material resources, and budgetary provisions. It began sponsoring research in molecular biology, agricultural and medical sciences, plant and animal tissue culture, biofertilizers and biopesticides, environment, human genetics, microbial technology, and bioprocess engineering, etc. The establishment of a number of world class bioscience research institutes and provision of large research grants to some existing universities helped in developing specialized centres of biotechnology. Besides DBT, the Department of Science & Technology (DST), also under the Ministry of S&T, sponsors research at universities working in the basic areas of life sciences.
At present in India, besides DBT there are five more major agencies responsible for financing and supporting research in the realm of biotechnology apart from other sciences. They are Department of Science and Technology (DST), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR) and University Grants Commission (UGC), Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR).
54 years after freedom and 51 years after the foundation of the Republic there is a generally shared want in the nation to assess the increases made as additionally to survey our future. Without a doubt, the general population of the nation and the administrators of society can be complimented on many means India's accomplishments since autonomy which incorporate independence (in actuality overflow age) in nourishment grains, a solid modern base, a rising anticipation of life, a higher level of education, an assembled and better coordinated India and a developing acknowledgment by the universe of our abilities and potential. On the negative side, one could check the annoying issues of joblessness, lack of education and destitution complemented by a regularly expanding populace. Likewise, a low for each capita salary, lacking foundation, feudalistic inclinations and most noticeably awful of each of the a pitiful hatred of control of law and morals in broad daylight life. At long last, an organization which is seen as greedy and native disagreeable.
Every one of these components affect governance. The approach administrations, open speculation, and way to deal with governance have contributed in a huge measure in keeping the nation together, in fortifying open organization, in figuring it out social and monetary objectives, and in the enhancement of the states of the general population to a degree. Lamentably, in the meantime, the significant segments of governance, specifically the political administrators, the council, the legal, the civil services, and the civil society need to assume the fault for huge numbers of the ills of society and the unfulfilled guarantees that we made to ourselves in November 1949 when we received the Constitution.
Travel and tourism is the largest service industry in India. It is economically important and is growing rapidly in india. It provides heritage, cultural, medical, business and sports tourism. The main objective of this sector is to develop and promote tourism, maintain competitiveness of India as tourist destination and improve and expand existing tourism products to ensure employment generation and economic growth The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2015 ranks India 52nd out of 141 countries overall.
The Ministry of Tourism, is the nodal agency for the formulation of national programs and policies and for the co-ordination of activities of various Central Government organizations, State Governments/UTs and the Private Sector for the development and promotion of tourism in the country.
India Tourism Development Corporation is one of the largest Hospitality companies in India. The company has various divisions to cater to different needs of tourists. The divisions are Ashok Travels & Tours, Ashok Creativity, Ashok Consultancy, Ashok Institute of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Ashok International Trade Division, and Ashok Group of Hotels.
Our India tourism guide provides you a glimpse of travel and tourism in India, India tourism information about south India tourism, north India tourism, and all the major tourist destinations, and tourism services of India.
The Indian Army is the world's third largest army in terms of military personnel. The Indian Army is one of the finest armies in the world. The basic responsibility of the Army is to safeguard the territorial integrity of the nation against external aggression. Modernization and up gradation of Army is a continuous process to keep Armed Forces ready to meet any challenge of tomorrow.
Since independence, India has fought five military conflicts, four against Pakistan and one against China.
First war was fought by India is known as First Kashmir War. This war was fought between India and Pakistan in year 1947-1949. The war began in 22nd October 1947 and ended in 1st January 1949. Pakistan precipitated the war a few weeks after independence by launching tribal lashkar (militia) from Waziristan, in an effort to secure Kashmir, the future of which hung in the balance.
The second war that India fought was against china held from 20 October 1962 – 21 November 1962. This war is also known as Sino-indian war.The cause of the war was a dispute over the sovereignty of the widely separated Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh border regions. Aksai Chin, claimed by India to belong to Kashmir and by China to be part of Xinjiang, contains an important road link that connects the Chinese regions of Tibet and Xinjiang. China's construction of this road was one of the triggers of the conflict.
The 1965 war between India and Pakistan was the second conflict between the two countries after the First Kashmir War 1947-49. This war was taken place over the status of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. after Pakistan launched a covert operation across the ceasefire line in India-occupied Kashmir, a fact that Pakistan continues to dispute to this day.
The 1971 war between India and Pakistan was the direct military confrontation between India and Pakistan during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. This war was held between 3rd December and 16th December 1971. It is one of the shortest war as it was last for only 13 days.
The 1999 war between India and Pakistan is commonly known as The Kargil war that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control (LOC). The Kargil War began between India and Pakistan on May 8, 1999 when Pakistani army had illegally intruded on the Indian side of the Line of Control (LOC) dividing the Indian territory of Ladakh from the northern areas of the state.