Home >> States >> Jharkhand

Jharkhand is the 28th state of the Indian Union. The state of Jharkhand, located in eastern India was carved out from the state of Bihar on November 15, 2000 with Ranchi as its capital. Jharkhand is also popularly known as Vananchal which means the wooded area. Nearly seventy five percent of the population of the state is tribes. The Chota Nagpur Plateau forms most of the area of Jharkhand. The plateau is the source of many rivers including Damodar, Koel and Subarnarekha. This area is also famous for its abundant mineral wealth - iron, coal, uranium, graphite, and magnate are among the minerals found here. Sarhul is the most famous festival among the tribes. Forests and woodlands cover a significant 29 percent of the state. Asian elephant, tiger and bison are among the inhabitants of these forests.

Jharkhand State Basic Information

Capital Ranchi
Area 79,714 sq. km
Population 32,966,238
No. of District 24
Literacy Rate 67.63%
Chief Minister Raghubar Das
Governer Draupadi Murmu
Sex Ratio 947
Language Hindi
Date of Formation 15 November 2000
State Animal Indian elephant
State Bird Asian koel
State Flower Sacred Tree
State Tree Sal tree
Official Website www.jharkhand.gov.in


The history of Jharkhand started on 15th November, 2000, when the territory of Jharkhand was carved out of Bihar: the southern part of Bihar was given a separate entity and named Jharkhand, which literally means 'the territory of forests'. However, according to some historians there was already a distinct geo-political, cultural entity called Jharkhand even before the period of Magadha Empire. During the age of Mahajanpadas around 500 BC, India saw the emergence of 16 large states that controlled the entire Indian subcontinent. In those days the northern portion of Jharkhand state was a tributary to Magadha (ancient Bihar) Empire and southern part was a tributary to Kalinga (ancient Orissa) Empire. Raja Jai Singh Deo of Odisha was accepted as the ruler of Jharkhand by its people in the 13th century. The local tribal heads had developed into barbaric dictators who could govern the province neither fairly nor justly. The colonization of Jharkhand has to mentioned in Jharkhand history. Colonization by the British East India Company resulted in spontaneous resistance from the local people. Almost one hundred years before India's First War of Independence (1857), adivasis of Jharkhand were already beginning what would become a series of repeated revolts against the British colonial rule.


Jharkhand is located in the eastern part of India. It is bounded by the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south, and West Bengal to the east.The geographical location of Jharkhand is 23o 45' N north latitude and 85o 30' E east longitude.The state is sprawled in an area of approximately 79,714 km2. The state of Jharkhand mainly comprises of the forest tracks of Chhotanagpur plateau and Santhal Pargana. This area in and around the districts of Chotanagpur and Santhal Parganas was formerly Southern Bihar and is thickly wooded and consists of various hills. More than 29 per cent land is covered by forest area. Although Jharkhand is endowed with vast and rich natural resources, mainly minerals and forest, 80 per cent of its population residing in 32620 villages depend mainly on agriculture and allied activities for their livelihood.


Jharkhand is a place renowned for its copious cultural feats. Various generations of communities, who inhabited the land since ages, dreamt about, shaped and polished the cultural sky of the state.The impression on the region's culture Jharkhand has been made by over 32 tribal groups including Asurs, Santhals, Banjara, Bihor, Chero, Gond, Ho, Khond, Lohra, Mai Pahariya, Munda, Oraon, Kol or Kawar. This total covers over 28% of the total population of the state. Rich in terms of forests and natural resources, Jharkhand is also a treasury of cultural heritage, music and dances, fairs and festivals. Jharkhand is a newly formed state, which has been segregated from Bihar. It, thus, witnessed transmigration of various people from West Bengal and Bihar, retaining their individual cultural traits intact.

The culture of Jharkhand stands nowhere without its rich treasure of ebullient festivals. The festivals like Sarhul, Karma, Sohrai, Badna, Tusu, Id, Christmas, Holi, Dussehra, etc are celebrated in Jharkhand with loads of fun and frolic.

The languages spoken in Jharkhand are Hindi (Official language), Santhali, Maithili, Urdu and Bengali. In fact, there are three main language families under which various languages have been grouped: The 'Munda languages' include Santhali, Mundari, Ho, Kharia, Bhumij while the 'Indo-Aryan languages include Bengali, Oriya, Maithili, Nagpuri, Khortha, Kurmali, Sadri and Panchpargania. The 'Dravadian languages' include Oraon (Kurukh), Korwa and Paharia (Malto) languages. The oldest cave paintings in India – 'scroll paintings' – have been attributed to a Jharkhand tribe by the art historians. This tribe is referred as Shabars, which is now living on the edge of extinction.


Jharkhand Education is centered around the examinations conducted under the State Boards, Universities and Colleges. Education in Jharkhand is composed of different boards such as Jharkhand intermediate examination board, Jharkhand Madrasha Examination board, The Education in Jharkhand have got a broad spectrum starting from the primary board to that of secondary.

The literacy rate in Jharkhand is 67.63%, the male literacy rate being 78.45% and that of female being 56.21% (according to Census 2011). A child 5 years and above of age is eligible for enrolling into a school in Jharkhand. The Jharkhand education system follows several tiers- schools, college, and university.he schools, which form the basis of education at Jharkhand, are affiliated to either the State Board or CBSE or ICSE. It is noteworthy that the government schools in Jharkhand are vernacular medium schools, where Hindi is the medium of instruction.


Jharkhand is one of the richest mineral zones in the world and boasts of 40 per cent and 29 per cent of India's mineral and coal reserves respectively. Due to its large mineral reserves, mining and mineral extraction are the major industries in the state. Jharkhand has the country's two biggest steel plants at Bokaro in the public sector and Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) in Jamshedpur in the private sector. Other important industries are Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company, Sriram Bearing, Usha Martin, Indian Tube Company, etc. The state is abundantly rich in minerals-copper, coal, iron, manganese, mica, chromite, bauxite, etc., and has the potential of becoming one of the most prosperous states of India.

The state per capita income in 2015-16 on present rate is Rs. 62,816 against the National per capita income of Rs. 93,231. If GDP is considered, Jharkhand has recorded 12.1% growth against 7.6% of the nation last year. From 2011 to 2015-16, remarkable growth has been recorded in almost every area of economy-5.23% in agriculture, 7.2% in industry and 10.63% in service sector. The growth rate shows all round development in the state.


Jharkhand comprises of 24 administrative districts, which are further divided into sub-divisions. The government and administration in Jharkhand is controlled on the same paths as in other states of the country. The Jharkhand Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha). The Vidhan Sabha consists of 81 members. Jharkhand has 14 seats in the Lok Sabha - the lower house of Parliament and 6 seats in Rajya Sabha - the upper house of Parliament. The Jharkhand Assembly is elected by universal adult suffrage for a period of five years. The Chief Minister is the head of government and is vested with most of the executive powers. The Chief Minister is assisted by a Council of Ministers that he nominates, the size of which is restricted.

Judiciary in Jharkhand is headed by Chief Justice as in other states of the country and Punjab Jharkhand High Court is the head of the judiciary system in Jharkhand. Jharkhand High Court was established at Ranchi on 15 November 2000.


Jharkhand, famously known as 'The Land of Forests' is an ultimate destination for nature lovers and wildlife enthusiasts. Blessed with unparalleled beauties like hills, mountains, forests, and waterfalls, this naturally rich state makes for a perfect holiday destination, especially for people who looks for a rendezvous with nature. Tourism is certainly not merely passing through an area. It involves studying appreciating, enjoying , flora and fauna the existing culture of the original inhabitants of the area. Jharkhand is a rare state that offers a tourist all these and much more together they make the state dream destination for tourist irrespective of their particular interest.Ranchi is a famous tourist destination in the region, and has a number of beautiful waterfalls, especially after the rains; Hirni Falls, Jonha Falls, Hundru Falls and Dassam Falls are the most famous.