Punjab


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The area now known as the Greater Punjab comprises what were once vast territories of eastern Pakistan and northern western India. The bigger section of the Punjab is 80% within Pakistan and has the Republic of India 20%.

The region, populated by Indo-Aryan speaking peoples, has been ruled by many different empires and ethnic groups, including Hindus, Jains, Buddhists, Greeks, Persians, Arabs, Turks, Mughals, Afghans, Balochis, Sikhs and British. In 1947, it was partitioned between British India's successor states with 4 out of the 5 rivers going to Pakistan and the remaining river was allotted to India.

Punjab State Basic Information

Capital Chandigarh
Area 50,362 sq. km
Population 27,704,236
No. of District 22
Literacy Rate 70.73%
Chief Minister Amarinder Singh
Governer Kaptan Singh Solanki
Sex Ratio 943
Language Punjabi
Date of Formation 1 November 1966
State Animal Blackbuck
State Bird Northern goshawk
State Flower Lilium
State Tree Indian rosewood
Official Website www.punjab.gov.in

History

It was an area that shaped parts of the Indus Valley development. The Aryans settled in this district in around 1500B.C. It was in around 900B.C that the clash of Kurukshetra said in the Epic Mahabharata was accepted to have occurred in Kurukshetra. Amid this period the locale framed little territories managed by chieftains. In 326BC Alexander the Great of Macedonia attacked Punjab. After this was the decide of Chandragupta Maurya that kept going till around first century A.D. By 318A.D the Gupta administration practiced their impact. They were trailed by the Huns in around 500A.D. By 1000A.D the Muslims attacked Punjab drove by Mahmud of Ghazni.

In 1030A.D the Rajputs picked up control of this domain. In around 1192A.D the Ghoris crushed the Chauhans and ruled till the foundation of the Mughal lead, a soul of religious freedom prompted the ascent of the Militant Sikh power. In the mid, nineteenth century the British set up their impact. After autonomy this district saw mass relocation and dispersion of property. In 1947 when India was divided, the bigger portion of Punjab went to Pakistan. In 1966 the Indian littler half was additionally partitioned into three: Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.

Geography

The state of Punjab is the core of India's Sikh people group. The state is circumscribed by the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir on the north, Himachal Pradesh toward the east, Haryana toward the south and southeast, Rajasthan toward the southwest, and the Pakistani area of Punjab toward the west. The state capital is situated in Chandigarh, a Union Territory and furthermore the capital of the neighboring province of Haryana. Punjab is situated in the vicinity of 29.30oN and 32.32oN scope and 73.55oE and 76.50oE longitude.

The aggregate region of Punjab is 50,362 square kilometers and this is around 1.54% of the aggregate geological range of India. In the event that we rank the Indian states as per area, Punjab is at 20th position among all of the 29 province of India.

Culture

Punjabi culture is one of the most seasoned and wealthiest culture in world history, and furthermore a standout amongst the most lively. The Indian province of Punjab displays an exceptional social scene, which flourishes in both customary esteems and utilitarian angles. There is imaginativeness in each part of life in Punjab and an atmosphere of frivolity rules the place. The lavish culture of this northwestern province of India is clear in its metal work, weaving, divider artworks, gems, mud divider sketches, engineering, people tunes and moves. The way of life of the state is wide in scope, incorporating a rich history and a throbbing social life. The extremely old Punjab culture is prestigious for its resistance, progressiveness and intelligent way to deal with life too.

The way of life of Punjab experienced huge periods of development that might be comprehensively isolated into three classifications. Old Punjab had a rich prepared block urban engineering. The general population around then were profoundly interested with substantial number of relics, recreations, for example, dice, which were later exhumed by archeologists. Amid the Middle Age, there were number of outside intrusions in the state. Greek, Persian, Mongol and Afghan intrusions had extensive impact on the social scene of the state. Plus, the birth and development of Sikhism amid this period, giving another measurement to the Punjabi culture. Today, Punjabi individuals are broadly conveyed everywhere throughout the world. Thus, the customary culture has been fortified and extended toward the western world also, particularly US, UK and Canada.

Education

Punjab is one of the few couple of states that has picked up acknowledgment as one of the main states in the education framework. A current overview has uncovered the way that Punjab has reacted in a dynamic way to that of the 'Sarva Shiksha Program' - a national campaign that essentially endeavors to drive ignorance. It undoubtedly is a urging angle that inferable from the nonstop exertion made with respect to the Indian government, the present proficiency rate remains at around seventy seven percent. There can indeed be no qualm to the way that the vigorous and nonstop exertion made with respect to both the focal and the state government, quality instruction has been granted to a dominant part of people. The training framework is overseen in a various leveled shape. The three levels that exist in the essential instruction incorporate essential training, optional training and school instruction.

Economy

The state of Punjab is known for its horticulture, domesticated animals, Forestry, businesses, minerals, tourism which inside and out constitute the economy of Punjab.

The economy of Punjab is prevalently an agrarian one having a low modern yield. The shortage of the fundamental minerals including the powers is the essential reason for poor modern advance.

The principal constituent of the Punjab economy is the horticultural division. The state is known for its tremendous creation of wheat. The agro-based businesses incorporate sustenance items, refreshments, cotton, wood and in addition papers.

The second critical arm of the economy of Punjab is the animals. It is one of the biggest makers in India in this specific field.

The third say ought to be made of the natural life and ranger service. This pulls in sightseers and consequently enhances the economy of Punjab. Additionally, the timberland and in addition different creature items procures income for the state.

Governance

Punjab comprises of 22 administrative districts, which are further divided into sub-divisions. The government and administration in Punjab is controlled on the same paths as in other states of the country. The Punjab Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha). The Vidhan Sabha consists of 117 members. Punjab has 13 seats in the Lok Sabha - the lower house of Parliament and 7 seats in Rajya Sabha - the upper house of Parliament. The Punjab Assembly is elected by universal adult suffrage for a period of five years. The Chief Minister is the head of government and is vested with most of the executive powers. The Chief Minister is assisted by a Council of Ministers that he nominates, the size of which is restricted.

Judiciary in Punjab is headed by Chief Justice as in other states of the country and Punjab High Court is the head of the judiciary system in Punjab. High Court of Punjab was established at chandigarh on 1919 but relocated in 1947.

Tourism

The prosperous conditions of Haryana and Punjab involve the prolific stream plain northwest of Delhi. Crossed by the five noteworthy tributaries of the Indus River, the previous British-directed area of Punjab ("Five Rivers") was divided into equal parts at Independence. Indian Muslims fled west into Pakistan, Sikhs and Hindus east, in a mass migration joined by terrible slaughters. In 1966, Indira Gandhi, in light of Sikh weight, made the Punjab Hills into Himachal Pradesh. The fields, in the mean time, were separated into the overwhelmingly Sikh Punjab and the 96-percent Hindu Haryana, both represented from the uncommonly constructed capital of Chandigarh.

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